The Graduate Diploma in Law (GDL) anchor
Whether you chose to spend your undergrad years exploring indigenous cultures, disproving theorems or underwater basket weaving, you can still come to the law via a one-year conversion course known as the Graduate Diploma in Law (GDL).
NB: The course is also referred to as the CPE (Common Professional Exam) or PgDL (Postgraduate Diploma in Law).
Because skills like textual analysis, research, logical argument, and written and oral presentation can be acquired in a whole range of disciplines, from English literature to zoology, legal employers tend not to make a distinction between applicants with an LLB and those who take the GDL route.
The GDL is essentially a crash law degree, designed to bring you up to the required standard in seven core legal subjects that would typically be taught in the first two years of an LLB. So that’s two years of study crammed into one – not exactly a walk in the park. Taken full-time it lasts a minimum of 36 weeks and can demand up to 45 hours of lectures, tutorials and personal study each week. It is possible to take the course part-time over two years and you will find that course providers offer a surprisingly wide range of flexible study options, from distance learning to weekends or evening-only classes.
The standard requirement for admission is a degree from a university in the UK or Republic of Ireland. It is possible for non-graduates to get onto a course if they’ve shown the requisite drive and determination, and have exceptional ability in some other field. Such candidates – and those with a degree from an overseas university – must obtain a Certificate of Academic Standing from the Bar Standards Board or Solicitors Regulation Authority before enrolling on the GDL.
Assessments tend to be by written exams taken at the end of the academic year. These will make up the bulk of your final grade, so make sure you are adequately prepared. Most GDL providers offer their students the opportunity to take mock exams throughout the year, and while these are generally optional, it’s probably a good idea to get as many as you can under your belt. If nothing else, they will give you an indication of your progress and the chance to receive feedback from tutors.
Other assessments and essays completed during the year can count for up to 30% of your final grade so do not underestimate their importance. Depending on the institution, there will be more or less emphasis on academic essays, written problem questions or practical preparation for classroom debates.
Because the institutions that offer the GDL vary in perceived quality, their approach and the composition of their student bodies, it is well worth doing your research before you apply. City University and Nottingham are renowned for offering more academic courses, thought to be ideally suited to students headed to the Bar. In London, BPP and the College of Law, for example, are packed with plenty of City types and place special emphasis on helping you gain practical legal skills. If you like the idea of a smaller GDL group, then Oxford Brookes could be the place for you.
Be aware that an increasing number of City firms are appointing a particular law school as their preferred provider. If you have your heart set on doing your training contract with a particular law firm, do your research and find out whether they have a preferred provider before you apply to the schools.
There’s a huge amount to take in so you need to be disciplined. Try and work out a study timetable early on, and stick to it. Don’t count on being able to catch up, as time will fly by. You’re there to learn a set curriculum, not to think outside the box. That said, it is important that you gain an overall understanding of how the law works so avoid studying each subject in isolation. Probably the best use of your creativity is to come up with amusing ways of remembering case names. Attend classes! Particularly if you have already secured a training contract before starting the GDL, be aware that some law schools will report on attendance, if asked by your future employer.
As a practising civil lawyer, you will apply your knowledge of contract law on a daily basis because it underpins nearly every single legal relationship. You’ll start by studying the rules that determine when an agreement becomes legally binding and enforceable and which formalities are required to create a contract. You’ll then move on to study what terms are permissible and find out what happens when you omit to read the small print. You’ll hear about the doctrine of misrepresentation, mistake and duress, and you’ll find out what your remedy is when an art dealer has neglected to tell you the Jackson Pollock you’ve just bought is actually the product of his son’s finger painting. Armed with your knowledge of the Sale of Goods Act, you may be tempted to bring any number of small claims against the high-street retailers whose products fall apart the minute you get them home.
Broadly defined, the law of tort is concerned with remedying wrongs committed by one individual against another via the civil rather than the criminal courts. Beyond this very sensible definition hides one of the most intellectually challenging and stimulating courses on the GDL. The law of negligence is the big subject in tort and you will devote the best part of the year to getting your head around it and applying it to specific situations such as clinical negligence. The course will also cover wrongs ranging from defamation to private nuisance. This is the field which fuels the so-called compensation culture and gives ‘ambulance-chasing’ lawyers a bad name. While studying tort you will hear about the fate of victims of gruesome work or road traffic accidents and catastrophic events such as the Hillsborough disaster. But you will also come across downright comical stories, including snails in bottles of ginger beer or a case of compensation for scratchy underwear.
Public law, as it is generically referred to, is a course that includes the study of constitutional law, human rights and administrative law (the order may vary depending on where you study). If you have no interest in politics (shame on you), you may find the whole subject a little obscure, but ten years on since the passing of the Human Rights Act, and with several constitutional reforms in the works, now is arguably the best of times to study this fascinating subject. The course will normally kick off with an analysis of the UK’s constitutional arrangements. This part is largely academic and will cover the doctrines of Parliamentary sovereignty, the Rule of Law, the Royal Prerogative and Responsible Government. Those with politics degrees should be able to hit the ground running. You’re also likely to enjoy the constitutional bit of the subject if you’re a history or philosophy buff. If you do not fit the description, why not Google ‘Dicey’ and see where that takes you.
You’ll also be taught about the Human Rights Act with particular emphasis being given to the concepts of freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to a fair trial and the nitty-gritty of exactly how much force the police can use when they throw you in the back of their van. After the academic bit is over, a large chunk of the rest of the course is devoted to judicial review, the process by which individuals with sufficient standing can challenge the decisions of public authorities. Those who don’t enjoy the theoretical feel of constitutional law should appreciate the more practical nature of judicial review.
Whether it is through reading crime novels, watching Law and Order or simply perusing newspaper headlines, you are in contact with criminal activity on a daily basis and you could be forgiven for thinking that the law begins and ends at crime. Studying criminal law will allow you to discover the reality behind the storylines. The syllabus will take you through assault, battery, sexual offences, criminal damage, theft, fraud and homicide. Also covered are the liability of accomplices, attempted offences and the defences available to those accused of committing criminal acts.
Whether your interest is in policy or the gruesome things that people do to one another, the crime course should provide plenty to engage and surprise. Overall, the subject follows a logical pattern and doesn’t hide many difficult philosophical concepts. You will find out early on that you always need to identify the actus reus (the guilty act) and the mens rea (the guilty mind) in order to establish an offence. Follow this structure religiously and you can’t go wrong. By the end of the course you’ll also be in a better position to explain why killing someone is not necessarily unlawful or why you could be guilty of theft without actually making off with somebody else’s property.
Equity and trustsanchor
This course will provide you with an introduction to the fundamental principles of equity, an intriguing area of law which calls upon the idea of conscience to remedy injustices brought about by the application of black letter law. Also on the agenda is the concept of trust, which is the legal arrangement whereby one person holds property for the benefit of another.
One preconception about the subject is that it is the preserve of those who have their heart set on Chancery work at the Bar or wish to practise in the private wealth sector. While this is partially true, equity and trusts form a particularly dynamic area of law, and you'll not only learn about the creation of gifts and trusts in the family context, you’ll also see that the concept has many uses in the commercial and financial worlds, particularly where tax evasion or the tracing of misappropriated funds are concerned. The topic is mostly precedent-based, meaning that you’ll have to memorise a huge number of cases. On the bright side, these can be amusing and memorable. You’ll hear about adulterous husbands trying to set up secret trusts for their mistresses and illegitimate children or wealthy eccentrics attempting to set up a pension for a beloved pet. Be aware that the concept of equity pervades the GDL course, so what you’ve learned here will also be relevant to your land law and contract modules.
This module will teach you everything you need to know about the ownership of land, starting with the startling realisation that all of it ultimately belongs to Her Majesty the Queen. Many students may find the subject off-putting to begin with because it uses archaic, mind-numbing jargon and calls on concepts such as overreaching, flying freeholds or overriding interests, which defy any sense of logic. Give it some time and everything will start to fall into place. You’ll find the topic has practical implications for your everyday life, including tips on how to handle a dispute with your landlord or how to arrange your first mortgage. The course will also take you through the basics of conveyancing and how to acquire interests in land such as easements or covenants, before going through the detail of how those interests operate.
The subject is formalistic and particularly statute-heavy. In addition to remembering loads of cases, you will be required to memorise countless statutory provisions on the creation and registration of interests in land. Don’t wait to familiarise yourself with the most important sections of the Law of Property Act: start creating flowcharts and checklists early on and you will laugh your way through the exam. As with most topics on the GDL, you will need to gain a good overall understanding of land law to be able to deal with specific matters, so don’t bet on revising selected subjects for the exam. There can be important overlap between them, particularly with equity and trusts.
Whether the Daily Mail likes it or not, EU law now affects our lives in many ways. This course should help dispel a few misconceptions about the British membership of the European Union – it touches on far more than the way in which EU bureaucrats regulate the shape and size of bananas. You’ll learn that the European Court of Justice (ECJ) is effectively the highest court of appeal for all the member states, and that EU law plays a central role in the creation of new rights against discrimination on grounds of age, disability, race, religion or sexual orientation, for example. Students become familiar with the institutional framework, foundations and underlying principles of the European Union before going on to explore certain areas of substantive EU law. Big subjects include the free movement of goods and workers, competition law and the freedom of establishment, as well as the incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into our national law. For Euro-philes, this course will provide a fascinating mix of politics, history, economics and comparative jurisprudence, but its case law contains some of the longest and most tongue-twisting names you’re likely to see.
How to applyanchor
In addition to the seven core subjects, certain GDL providers, particularly those with a City slant, also offer optional classes designed to ease your passage into the corporate world. These may include additional lectures or seminars on company law, intellectual property and international law. Most also organise mooting competitions and pro bono work. These should give you an early opportunity to try your counselling and advocacy skills and find out if a legal career is really for you, particularly if you’re headed for the Bar. A number of providers have degree-awarding powers allowing you to upgrade your qualification to an LLB, either upon successful completion of your GDL and LPC or after a summer course following the GDL. Unlike the GDL, the LLB gives you an internationally recognised accreditation.
All GDL applications are made online through the Central Applications Board (www.lawcabs.ac.uk). From October 2011, the cost of an application is set to rise from £10 to no more than £15 but at time of publication the final figure was unknown. It’s worth getting your application in as early as possible if you have your heart set on a particular institution, particularly as Lawcabs need your referee to respond to them before your application is passed on to the schools you’re interested in. Many law schools now offer January as well as September starts for their GDL programmes and so the application timetable has been reformed to accommodate this. Replacing the old process involving first and second round offers, law schools will now recruit GDL students on a rolling basis.
The application form for courses beginning in 2012 will be available from early October 2011 and commencing early November these applications will be sent to law schools who may then make offers to students. The later you apply the more flexible you may have to be about where you study. Applications for part-time courses should be made directly to the providers. If you intend to do an LPC or BVC at a popular institution you might stand a better chance if you choose it for your GDL as many providers guarantee places to their GDL graduates.
The GDL is now offered at around 39 different universities and law schools across England and Wales. We have a table detailing course providers’ fees and loads of other useful information here.